This investigation displays antioxidant potential ofCymbocarpum erythraeumessential oils and their biological effects like cytotoxic and anticholinesterase. The antioxidant capacities of the essential oils were estimated by DPPH, TBA, TOS assays. The anticholinesterase activity of essential oils was estimated utilizing Ellman method. The human U-87MG and PC-3 were handled and measurements were estimated by MTT test. The root essential oil showed high cytotoxic activity on PC-3 cells with 48.33% whereas aerial part essential oils indicated high cytotoxic activity on U-87MG cells with 34.62% at 0.03 mg/L. Root oil presented the highest acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibition (IC50: 113, 197 mu M, respectively). The GC-FID and GC-MS assays showed that major components of aerial part with flowers and root oils were (E)-2-decenal (52.1%); (E)-2-dodecenal (36.1%), and (E)-2-tetradecenal (22.3%), respectively. (E)-2-dodecenal was a major compound of root il and exhibited AChE and BuChE inhibitory (IC50: 100, 136 mu M, respectively) and antioxidant effects.