In this study, pure and variable content Sb doped ZnO nanorods (NRs) were grown by a simple spray pyrolysis method successfully. Structural analysis has showed that all the films are indicating preferential dominant c-axis (002) plane from x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. It is observed that Sb doping does not result in changes in lattice parameter indicating no lattice distortion. Raman measurements has indicated Sb doping related modes in ZnO NRs especially defect related. SEM images has shown uniform hexagonal close packing NR structures uniformly distributed throughout the film. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has displayed lower incorporation of the Sb from the precursor to the Sb doped NRs. Hydrogen gas sensor performances of these NRs has investigated. 5.0 wt% Sb doped ZnO NR sample has showed outstanding response with 23-fold response to 10 ppm hydrogen gas level at 250 degrees C. (C) 2021 Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.