Aim. Cardiovascular diseases and infections are the leading two causes of morbidity and mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Kidney transplantation is the preferred method for renal replacement owing to better survival. There are reports of irreversibly damaged immune system in dialysis patients, which did not return to normal even after kidney transplantation. The neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is an easily applicable method for evaluation of inflammation. We hypothesized that preemptive kidney transplantation can improve inflammatory state compared with nonpreemptive recipients. To test our hypothesis, we retrospectively investigated pretransplant and posttransplant NLR and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels of ESRD patients and compared them with values in healthy controls.