TÜRK KÜLTÜR VE MEDENİYETİNDE METAFORİK BAĞLAMINDA OYUN-İNANÇ VE MASKE


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Gültepe G.

Journal of Turkish Studies, vol.14, no.7, pp.3733-3747, 2019 (Peer-Reviewed Journal)

Abstract

In many cultures, the notion of mask, which appears to be a manifestation of hiding identity or highlighting the sub-identity during the game, has been dealt with in a realistic manner in some cultures, while in some cultures it has emerged as a symbol or symbol. In Turkish art, the mask, which appears as a representative form, presents a world beyond the visible. It reveals another aspect of the real or mythological being that it represents by identifying with metaphor. The example to be given here is the identification of the masquerade with God in the play and festivity of the primitives, the stages passed from the level of being (Senses) to the stage of being (Consciousness), and they are always developed within the framework of primitive purity, belief and conviction. In art history, the masks and their derivatives, which are found in archaeological finds, can reflect their origin in various forms with play, decorative or protective features, and can also be interpreted metaphorically. The analogies make the mask magical and mysterious, turning it into a game. The wearer of the mask now plays another person, either cared or feared, in the game or ceremony. The material and other dimension of faith becomes a representative image of the sacred. This tradition results in the influence of religion and belief influence on the formation and use of the mask in Turkish art especially as a result of different geographies where this culture is included. The protective and mystical view of culture in the use of masks is explained by the fact that the reflections of the different geography and cultural influences that Turkish art has gone through in its essence have always come from traces of the past. The masks contain the characteristics of the Equestrian Steppe Turkish Style that developed in the Eurasian steppes. Masks, which give examples in animal form (Zoomorf), as substances, have changed over time and appeared in human form (Anthropomorph) or in more complex forms. The functionality of the mask in this sense has shown its mystical usability in Turkish art. The relationship of pre-Islamic Turks with nature and supernatural, the imagination and complementary elements in the belief system of Gok-God, spread throughout the Islamic period by being traditionalized and developed around this religious-faith identity, exhibited its spiritual side as well as its spiritual side. In the old Turkish belief, the concept of mask is that it changes the person who wears the mask and disguises it in every clothing. For example, dressing up with animal skin would be equivalent to introducing it into the animal kingdom, so that the animal was accustomed to the human kingdom. In this sense, examples were given in the grandfather Korkut epics, war, the entry into the animal skin, the animal with a very strong combative aspect, because it concerns the true essence of the soul, perhaps it was intended to obtain a spiritual power. In addition, the skins of the sacred animals represented the personalities of the ancestors and the holy spirits. In animal-animal pairs, in the depictions of animals with masked or horns, a wolf is wearing deer antlers, and a horse is similarly wearing deer antlers. In addition to horse and deer masks, tiger masks, which have the stylistic features of steppe art, were also included in the finds. With these masks, a horse could run as fast as a deer or fly as fast as an eagle. Likewise, the masked human replicas resembling the portrait showed that the person wearing the mask had passed into another realm. The transition to another realm was not only related to death but also represented a different kind of person. There have been various formal quests in the stage of reflecting artistic expressions around the religious and belief system of the ancient Turks. Generally, these expressions have taken place in indirect symbolic and metaphoric forms. These expressions that inspire formal designs in Turks, for example, show that, in contrast to the fact that a person can turn into a bird after death, the spirit of the bird form, that is, beings and demons, is basically zoomorphic. Metaphorical narratives, the status of a human being compared to an animal, a text mentioned in Nestor-chronics, pointed out that there is an affirmation that a Cuman prince is lycanthropic. Similar cases have been seen in the Islamic period and the tariqat circles (Metamorphosis) (Gultepe, 2016: 107), which is seen in Turkish written texts, which is defined as acceptance, change, speciation (Ögel, 2010b: 134) frost change (Berkli, 2011). : 38-39). In the miniatures of Kelile and Dimne, the depictions of Turkish parents and sects sheikhs who use snakes instead of whips instead of whips in the Bektashi menkibis, which correspond to closely related depictions, are also interpreted as symbolic expressions of the divine powers of these persons (Köprülü et al. 1970: 152).

Keywords: Mask, Game, Animal Form-Human Form, Metamorphosis, Substance

Pek çok kültürde, oyun esnasında, kimliği gizleme veya alt kimliğin öne çıkarılmasının bir tezahürü olarak gözüken maske mefhumu, kimi kültürlerde realist bir tarzda ele alınırken kimi kültürlerde de simge veya sembol boyutuyla ortaya çıkmıştır. Türk sanatında ise temsili form olarak beliren maske, görünenin ötesinde bir dünya sunar. Temsil ettiği gerçek veya mitolojik varlığın, bir başka görünümünü eğretilemelerle özdeşlik kurarak açığa çıkarır. Burada verilecek örnek, ilkellerin oyun ve şenliğinde, maskelinin oyun boyunca Tanrı ile özdeşleştirilmesi, var olma (Duyular) düzeyinden, varlık (Bilinç) aşaması şeklinde geçirilen evreler, hep birer ilkel saflık, inanma ve inandırma çerçevesinde gelişmiş olmasıdır. Sanat tarihinde, arkeolojik buluntularda örneklerine rastlanılan maske ve türevleri, oyun, dekoratif veya koruyucu özelliklere sahip çeşitli biçimlerde aslını yansıtabildiği gibi metaforik açıdan da yorumlanabilmektedir. Benzetmeler, maskenin büyülü ve esrarlı bir hal almasını sağlayarak adeta bir oyuna dönüştürür. Maskeyi takan kişi oyun veya törende artık ya özenilen ya da korkulan başka bir kişiyi oynamaktadır. İnancın özdeksel ve uhrevi boyutu, kutsalın, temsili bir görüntüsüne dönüşür. Bu gelenek, Türk sanatında özellikle bu kültürün dahil olduğu farklı coğrafyalar neticesinde din-inanç tesirinin etkileri, maskenin oluşumunda ve kullanımında etken olduğu sonucunu doğurmaktadır. Kültürün maske kullanımındaki koruyucu ve mistik bakışı, Türk sanatının tarihi içinde geçirdiği farklı coğrafya ve kültür etkilerinin yansımaları özünde hep geçmişten izler taşıyarak gelmiş olmasıyla açıklanır.

Anahtar Kelimeler: Maske, Oyun, Hayvan Biçim-İnsan Biçim, Metamorfoz, Töz