Incorporation of Hydroxyapatite into Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC) Formulated Based on Alumino-Silicate-Fluoride Glass Ceramics from Waste Materials

Wan Jusoh W. N., Matori K. A., Mohd Zaid M. H., Zainuddin N., Ahmad Khiri M. Z., Abdul Rahman N. A., ...More

MATERIALS, vol.14, no.4, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 14 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/ma14040954
  • Journal Name: MATERIALS
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aerospace Database, CAB Abstracts, Communication Abstracts, Compendex, INSPEC, Metadex, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: ASF glass ceramics, clam shell, glass ionomer cement, hydroxyapatite, soda lime silica glass
  • Ataturk University Affiliated: Yes


Glass ionomer cement (GIC) is a well-known restorative material applied in dentistry. The present work aims to study the effect of hydroxyapatite (HA) addition into GIC based on physical, mechanical and structural properties. The utilization of waste materials namely clam shell (CS) and soda lime silica (SLS) glass as replacements for the respective CaO and SiO2 sources in the fabrication of alumino-silicate-fluoride (ASF) glass ceramics powder. GIC was formulated based on ASF glass ceramics, polyacrylic acid (PAA) and deionized water, while 1 wt.% of HA powder was added to enhance the properties of the cement samples. The cement samples were subjected to four different ageing times before being analyzed. In this study, the addition of HA caused an increment in density and compressive strength results along with ageing time. Besides, X-ray Diffraction (XRD) revealed the formation of fluorohydroxyapatite (FHA) phase in HA-added GIC samples and it was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis which detected OH-F vibration mode. In addition, needle-like and agglomeration of spherical shapes owned by apatite crystals were observed from Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). Based on Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, the detection of chemical elements in the cement samples were originated from chemical compounds used in the preparation of glass ceramics powder and also the polyacid utilized in initiating the reaction of GIC.