This study was carried out to determine the presence and levels of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in yoghurt and ayran consumed in the province of Erzurum, Turkey. For this purpose, a total of 80 yoghurt samples and 80 ayran samples were randomly obtained from markets. The samples' AFM1 content and concentrations were examined by competitive ELISA method. AFM1 at detectable level (5 ng/kg) was found in 87.5% of the yoghurt samples and in 90.0% of the ayran samples. AFM1 levels in 16 (20%) yoghurt and in 11 (13.6%) ayran samples exceeded the maximum tolerable limit of the Turkish Food Codex. The positive incidence of AFM1 in the yoghurt and ayran samples ranged from 10 to 475 ng/kg and from 6 to 264 ng/kg, respectively. It was concluded that high AFM1 level is an important problem threatening public health in Turkey. Therefore, dairy products have to be controlled routinely for presence of AFM1 contamination by public health authorities.