alpha-cypermethrin is a pyrethroid and environmental genotoxic pesticide extensively used worldwide for agricultural applications. However, like other pesticides, it affects non-target organisms as well as target organisms and causes various toxic effects. To evaluate alpha-cypermethrin toxicity in non-target organisms, the effect of alpha-cypermethrin on the activity of malondialdehyde (MDA, an indicator of lipid peroxidation) content, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; peroxidase, POX and catalase, CAT) and DNA damage were investigated in maize. For this purpose, maize seedlings were exposed to alpha-cypermethrin in different concentrations (5, 10, 25, and 50 ppm) for 7 days in Petri dishes. After the incubation root length, antioxidant enzyme levels, MDA content and RAPD profiles of seedlings were analyzed to determine toxicity. The results revealed that both MDA content and the activity of antioxidant enzymes (except for 5 ppm at POX application) significantly increased (p<0.05) by exposing to acypermethrin in a concentration dependent manner. Conversely, significant changes in RAPD profiles were observed after acypermethrin applications. These changes included loss of normal bands and the appearance of new bands, in comparison with the control group, and they also were dose-dependent. According to these obtained results, we concluded that alpha-cypermethrin cause DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner and the root cells of maize exhibits defense against alpha-cypermethrin-induced oxidative stress by enhancing their antioxidant activities.