Valproic acid (VPA) may affect thyroid hormone profile, causing alteration in serum trace elements concentrations. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate this relationship in children receiving VPA monotherapy for a period up to 6 months. Serum thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroglobuline (TG), selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) levels were evaluated at baseline and at the 6th month in all the patients and in the control group. The mean Cu concentration in the 6th months of VPA therapy was significantly lower than that of the control group. TSH level was significantly increased in the patient group whereas FT4 was significantly decreased. The mean TSH level in the 6th month of VPA therapy was significantly higher than that of the control group, whereas mean 14 level was significantly lower. The Cu level in the 6th months of VPA therapy was positively correlated with T4 level. Delta log Cu and Delta TSH were negatively correlated. This study suggests that the alteration in the serum thyroid hormone profile during VPA therapy may result from the reduction in serum Cu levels. (C) 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.