Investigation of the effect of human capital on environmental pollution: empirical evidence from Turkey


Çamkaya S., Karaaslan A., Uçan F.

ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH, vol.30, no.9, pp.23925-23937, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 30 Issue: 9
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11356-022-23923-8
  • Journal Name: ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE AND POLLUTION RESEARCH
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, IBZ Online, ABI/INFORM, Aerospace Database, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Environment Index, Geobase, MEDLINE, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.23925-23937
  • Keywords: CO2 emissions, Ecological footprint, Human capital, FADL, FFFF-TY, NONRENEWABLE ENERGY-CONSUMPTION, KUZNETS CURVE HYPOTHESIS, OIL-PRICE SHOCK, CO2 EMISSIONS, ECONOMIC-GROWTH, FINANCIAL DEVELOPMENT, EKC HYPOTHESIS, ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT, DEGRADATION EVIDENCE, INTERNATIONAL-TRADE
  • Ataturk University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

Reducing environmental pollution is a highly important issue that must be resolved globally. Improving human capital (HC) can significantly contribute to lowering environmental pollution. Using the Fourier ADL (FADL) method, this study examines the long-term effect of HC on carbon emissions (CO2 emissions) and ecological footprint (EF) in Turkey from 1980 to 2018. In addition, the study examined the long-term effects of economic growth (GDP), financial development (FD), and globalization (KOF) on CO2 emissions and EF. According to empirical results, HC has a negative effect on both CO2 emissions and EF. Furthermore, the findings indicate that GDP and FD have a positive effect on CO2 emissions and EF, whereas KOF has no statistically significant effect on CO2 emissions and negative EF. According to the FFFF-TY causality test results, there is bidirectional causality between FD and EF and a unidirectional causality from HC to EF and from EF to KOF. This study underlines the importance of human capital in improving environmental quality in Turkey. In this context, the results of this study will assist policy makers in the development of precise policies to enhance human capital in order to improve environmental quality.