Secondhand smoke exposure for different education levels: findings from a large, nationally representative survey in Turkey

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Alkan Ö., Ünver Ş.

BMJ Open, vol.12, no.e057360, pp.1-12, 2022 (SCI-Expanded)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 12 Issue: e057360
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-057360
  • Journal Name: BMJ Open
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Page Numbers: pp.1-12
  • Ataturk University Affiliated: Yes


Objectives The aim of this study is to determine the factors that influence individuals’ exposure to tobacco smoke in Turkey according to their education level.

Design Secondary data analysis.

Participants Altogether, 17 084 individuals aged 15 and over were included in this study.

Settings Data set of the Turkey Health Survey in 2019.

Methods Binary logistic regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with individuals’ exposure to tobacco smoke.

Primary and secondary outcome measures The variables age, gender, marital status, general health status, employment status, receipt of psychosocial support and tobacco use were found to be correlated with exposure to tobacco smoke.

Results The study determined that individuals who are illiterate/unschooled were exposed to tobacco smoke at a rate of 32.61%, primary school graduates at a rate of 34.32%, primary education graduates at a rate of 41.75%, high school graduates at a rate of 41.04% and university graduates at a rate of 40.34%.

Conclusion As a result of the study, it is emphasised that men, young individuals, individuals with moderate and very good general health status, those who use tobacco, those who are unemployed and those who receive psychosocial support should be targeted. In addition, appropriate strategies for reducing secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure should be developed, taking into account public health strategies for increasing awareness of the adverse health effects of SHS exposure and the determinants of tobacco exposure according to the study.