The genotoxic, hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic, haematotoxic and histopathological effects in rats after aluminium chronic intoxication

GEYİKOĞLU F. , Türkez H. , BAKıR T. O. , CICEK M.

TOXICOLOGY AND INDUSTRIAL HEALTH, vol.29, no.9, pp.780-791, 2013 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 29 Issue: 9
  • Publication Date: 2013
  • Doi Number: 10.1177/0748233712440140
  • Page Numbers: pp.780-791


Aluminium (Al) is used in water purification and is also present in several manufactured foods and medicines. Al is known to induce a broad range of physiological, biochemical and behavioural dysfunctions in laboratory animals and humans. This investigation was carried out to investigate the effects of subchronic exposure to Al (as AlCl3) in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly separated into two groups. Group 1 rats treated with sodium chloride served as the control, group 2 rats were treated with Al (as AlCl3, 5mg/kg body weight) intraperitonally for 10 weeks. Animals were killed and blood samples were analyzed for blood serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme activities and creatinine, urea (U) and uric acid (UA) levels for evaluating hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Blood parameters including red blood cells (RBCs), haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, haematocrit (Ht), platelets (PLTs) and white blood cells (WBCs) were compared between control and experimental group to assess haematoxicity. In order to determine the genotoxicity, the number of micronucleated hepatocytes (MNHEPs) was counted in isolated hepatocytes. In addition, histological alterations in liver and kidney samples were investigated. After exposure with Al, the enzymatic activities of ALP, AST, ALT and LDH, and the levels of U and UA significantly increased. RBC, WBC, PLT, Hb and Ht revealed significant decreases in experimental group compared to the control. AlCl3 caused a significant increase in MNHEPs. Furthermore, severe pathological damages were established in both liver and kidney samples. Subchronic exposure to low doses of Al can produce serious dysfunctions in rat blood, liver and kidney, and exposure to this metal can result in greater damages.