Introduction: Cartonectin was defined as a new adipokine released from rat and human adipocyte tissues, which is also known as CORS 26 or CTRP3 protein. Although there are several studies investigating the effects of cartonectin with obesity, anti-inflammatory mechanisms, and cardioprotective effects, there is no study about the effects of cartonectin in patients with chronic kidney disease yet. We aimed to investigate cartonectin levels in predialysis and dialysis patient groups, in other words, at different stages of chronic kidney disease, by comparing with the control group. In addition, we aimed to discuss the probable causes of the differences between the patient groups that would be determined, together with the factors that might be effective. Methods: A total of 150 patients, including 47 hemodialysis patients, 73 predialysis CKD patients, and 30 healthy individuals were enrolled in the study. Serum cartonectin levels were determined by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Findings: Serum cartonectin levels were found to be significantly higher in the hemodialysis patient group compared to predialysis group and healthy individuals (p < 0.01). Furthermore, serum cartonectin levels were found to be negatively correlated with GFR, BMI, glucose, LDL, and platelet levels, whereas a positive correlation was observed with creatinine levels. Discussion: In our study, we found that the cartonectin levels increased as GFR decreased and were significantly higher in hemodialysis patients. Cartonectin is structurally closely related to adiponectin. It is remarkable that the level of cartonectin is also high in hemodialysis patients, like adiponectin.