SUSTAINABILITY, vol.13, no.15, 2021 (SCI-Expanded)
The northeastern Anatolia region of Turkey is one of the richest plant biodiversity areas in Turkey. This study describes some important tree and fruit characteristics of 20 seed-propagated summer apple genotypes from northeastern Anatolia using morphological and biochemical markers. The genotypes were evaluated morphologically for tree growth habit, ripening date, fruit weight, fruit firmness, fruit shape, fruit color, fruit taste, juiciness and aroma. The biochemical characteristics measured were organic acids, SSC (soluble solid content), titratable acidity, vitamin C, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. We found significant differences for most of the morphological and biochemical characteristics. The genotypes exhibited quite diverse harvest dates ranging from 4 July to 16 August. Summer apple genotypes had fruit weight between 101.9 g and 133.5 g. The genotypes had diverse fruit shapes, including round, conic and oblate, and over fruit colours such as pink, red, yellow and green. Genotypes GUM7 and GUM13 stood out for fruit weight, SSC, total phenolic and antioxidant capacity. GUM7 and GUM13 present dissimilarity from the other genotypes. While the first showed a lower average fruit weight, SSC, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, the second revealed higher average of fruit weight, total phenolic content, antioxidant capacity and higher SSC. Due to their favorable characteristics, GUM13 can be used for further crosses with genotypes of other groups, which also present favorable characteristics.