The protective effects of carvacrol and thymol against paracetamol-induced toxicity on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines (HepG2)


PALABIYIK Ş. S. , KARAKUS E. , HALICI Z. , ÇADIRCI E. , BAYIR Y. , AYAZ G., ...More

HUMAN & EXPERIMENTAL TOXICOLOGY, vol.35, no.12, pp.1252-1263, 2016 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 35 Issue: 12
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Doi Number: 10.1177/0960327115627688
  • Title of Journal : HUMAN & EXPERIMENTAL TOXICOLOGY
  • Page Numbers: pp.1252-1263

Abstract

Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose could induce liver damage and lead to acute liver failure. The treatment of APAP overdoses could be improved by new therapeutic strategies. Thymus spp., which has many beneficial effects and has been used in folk medicine, is one such potential strategy. In the present study, the hepatoprotective activity of the main constituents of Thymus spp., carvacrol and thymol, were evaluated in light of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. We hoped to understand the hepatoprotective mechanism of these agents on the antioxidant system and pro-inflammatory cytokines in vitro. Dose-dependent effects of thymol and carvacrol (25, 50, and 100 mu M) were tested on cultured HepG2 cells. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) was tested as positive control. We showed that APAP inhibited HepG2 cell growth by inducing inflammation and oxidative stress. Incubating APAP-exposed HepG2 cells with carvacrol and thymol for 24 h ameliorated this inflammation and oxidative stress. We also evaluated alanine transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase levels of HepG2 cells. We found that thymol and carvacrol protected against APAP-induced toxicity in HepG2 cells by increasing antioxidant activity and reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor a and interleukin 1 beta. Taking together high-dose thymol and carvacrol treatment has an effect close to NAC treatment in APAP toxicity, but thymol has better treatment effect than carvacrol.