Hesperidin protects against the chlorpyrifos-induced chronic hepato-renal toxicity in rats associated with oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, autophagy, and up-regulation of PARP-1/VEGF


KÜÇÜKLER S. , ÇOMAKLI S. , ÖZDEMİR S. , ÇAĞLAYAN C., KANDEMİR F. M.

ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume:
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/tox.23156
  • Title of Journal : ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY

Abstract

In this study, we investigated the effects of hesperidin (HSP) on oxidants/antioxidants status, inflammation, apoptotic, and autophagic activity in hepato-renal toxicity induced by chronic chlorpyrifos (CPF) exposure in rats. We used a total of 35 male albino rats in five groups of seven: control, HSP 100, CPF, CPF + HSP50, and CPF + HSP100. After rats were sacrificed, blood, liver, and kidney samples were collected. Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferases (ALT and AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine, and urea were tested. Then, contents of the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione (GSH) were measured to detect the level of oxidative stress in rat liver and renal tissues. We measured inflammatory and autophagy markers of chlorpyrifos induced oxidative stress in the liver and kidney tissues including TNF-alpha, iNOS, IL-1 beta, COX-2, NF-kappa B, MAPK14, and Beclin-1 using ELISA. Histopathological findings were also examined followed by immunohistochemical determination of 8-OHdG expression. Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) was used to examine Cas-3, Bax, Bcl-2, PARP-1, and VEGF, which are associated with apoptosis, autophagy, DNA, and endothelial damage, respectively. In addition, PARP-1 activity was supported by western blot and immunofluorescence, VEGF activity was supported by western blot methods. Treatment with HSP reduced the effect of CPF on ALT, AST, ALP, and total proteins, and increased its effect on tissue antioxidants. PARP/VEGF, apoptotic, pro-apoptotic, anti-apoptotic, and autophagic gene expressions were regulated, and Caspase-3 and Bax expressions were decreased; Bcl-2 expression increased in both the liver and kidney samples, and positivity of 8-OHdG and PARP-1 were reduced in the CPF plus HSP-treated group. Overall, the study demonstrates that HSP may reduce the effects of hepato-renal toxicity caused by CPF by regulating oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis, autophagy, and PARP/VEGF genes at biochemical, cellular, and molecular levels.