Ethnopharmacological studies demonstrated that thymol (Thym) and oleuropein (Ole) have therapeutic potential for gastric ulcers. The molecular mechanism underlying the gastroprotective effects of these compounds have not been elucidated yet especially for their individual and combination use at high dose. Therefore, this study was conducted to explore their gastroprotective mechanisms on indomethacin (Indo)-induced gastric ulcer model. Ole (50,100, 250, and 500 mg/kg) and Thym (50,100, 200, and 500 mg/kg) were orally administered to the rats 10 min before the induction of ulcer with Indo. The combination of 500 mg/kg doses of Ole and Thym were applied. The gastric mucosa was evaluated histopathologically. Moreover, TAC/TOS, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), prostaglandin E-2(PGE(2)), endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and caspase-3 levels were assessed by ELISA and the caspase-3 and TNF-alpha expressions were quantified by qRT-PCR. Indo-induced histopathological changes while Ole and Thym pretreatment prevented these effects. Unlike the 500 mg/kg dose of Ole treatment, the 500 mg/kg dose of Thym administration enhanced these damages. The decreased TAC, PGE(2)levels and increased TOS, eNOS, TNF-alpha, caspase-3 levels were obtained in Indo group. However, these changes were reversed by Ole and Thym groups except the 500 mg/kg dose of Thym and the combination treatment groups. Similar trends were observed in the caspase-3 and TNF-alpha expression levels. These results demonstrated that enhanced inflammation, oxidant/antioxidant imbalance, and apoptotic activities were occurred in Indo, 500 mg/kg dose of Thym and the combination treatment groups while not in the other groups. The findings demonstrated the gastroprotective ability of Ole and low doses of Thym in gastric ulcer models.