The present study employed FAMEs and RAPD to investigate the patterns of biochemical and genetic variation among and within three different populations of Vicia canescens L. Fourteen primers were used for the RAPD and polymorphic bands were obtained with eight primers. Biochemical and genetic distances were calculated and dendrograms were obtained for all studied populations using both RAPD and FAMEs methods. The results of our RAPD analysis suggest that the highest percentage of polymorphic loci (63.7%) was recorded in pine population, which was followed by the campus (60.8%) and colonial (colonizing?)(43.1%) populations. A UPGMA analysis was carried out using Jaccard's index of similarity for 45 individuals in the three populations, which produced a dendrogram. The index revealed that the campus and colonial(colonizing?) populations are the closest ones, while pine and campus(?) populations are the farthest.