Arginase is the last enzyme of the urea cycle. It catalyses the hydrolysis of L-arginine to L-omitine and urea. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of arginase activity in ovarian structures such as: Graaf follicles, GF (Medium and Large size, M- and L-size), Corpus Haemorrhagicum (CH), and various types of Corpus Luteum (CL) such as: cyclic CL (CCL), 2-4 month pregnancy CL (2-4 MCL) and 4-7 month pregnancy CL (4-7 MCL). Ovarian tissues of 62 cows (7-10 years old and Brown Swiss or its cross-breeds), collected from a local slaughterhouse, were used as material. The materials were divided into 6 experimental groups, as follows: MGF group (n = 7), LGF group (n = 21), CH group (n = 7), CCL group (n = 6), 2-4 MCL group (n = 9) and 4-7 MCL group (n = 12). Arginase activities were measured as 0.056 +/- 0.017, 0.100 +/- 0.016, 2.517 +/- 0.521, 0.827 +/- 0.190, 0.674 +/- 0.106 and 0.833 +/- 0.093 U/mg protein in all groups, respectively. Arginase activity in the CH group was significantly higher than that in the CCL, 2-4 MCL and 4-7 MCL groups (P<0.001). The lowest enzyme activity was in the MGF and LGF groups. Hence, it was concluded that the arginase enzyme might play a crucial role in cell division, proliferation and differentiation in the ovarian tissues (especially the CH) of mature cows.