Atherosclerosis, which develops as a result of inflammation, is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study, we investigated the relationship of mean platelet volume (MPV) and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) with inflammation and proteinuria in patients with CKD Stage 3-4. Healthy individuals who applied to nephrology clinic for checkup purposes acted as controls. Fifty-three patients and 30 healthy controls were included in the study. Patients with diabetes mellitus, active infection, malignancy, and coronary artery disease were excluded from the study. Biochemistry values and hemograms were recorded for all patients and for control group. NLR was calculated. The relationship between MPV/NLR and protein, fibrinogen, and proteinuria was evaluated. Our study showed a statistically significant difference between CKD group and healthy control (HC) group in uric acid, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, and NLR values (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, P = 0.01, P < 0.01, respectively). No statistically significant difference was found between CKD and HC groups for MPV (P = 0.307). Correlation analysis revealed a statistically significant relationship between NLR and creatinine (P < 0.00, r = 0.571), uric acid (P < 0.00, r = 0.436), glomerular filtration rate (P < 0.00, r = 0.418), 24 h urine protein (P = 0.004, r = 0.311), and 24 h urine microalbumin (P = 0.001, r = 0.354). A statistically significant relationship was detected between MPV and platelet count (P < 0.001, r = 0.422), age (P = 0.004, r = 0.312), uric acid (P = 0.04, r = 0.226), and fibrinogen (P = 0.023, r = 0.249). Whereas, a statistically significant relationship was detected between NLR and microalbuminuria/proteinuria, there was no statistically significant relationship between MPV and microalbuminuria/proteinuria. Our study showed that the NLR is high in CKD group and is correlated with uric acid and proteinuria, which are known to be associated with atherosclerosis, in patients with CKD. NLR may be a determinant of inflammation and atherosclerosis in patients with CKD.