WASTE AND BIOMASS VALORIZATION, cilt.8, ss.1665-1678, 2017 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi)
Industrial wastewater contains complex and slowly biodegradable compounds often ineffectively treated by conventional activated sludge (CAS) systems. Alternatively, advanced anaerobic technologies are implemented. The current study reviews different potential anaerobic schemes, factors influencing their final performance and optimum combinations of operational/design parameters. Anaerobic membrane bioreactors, upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors, expanded granular sludge beds, anaerobic hybrid reactors and inverse fluidized bed reactors are discussed. Their major advantages include: low energy requirements, energy recovery through biogas generation and high organic load removal. pH = 7, operation in a mesophilic environment and a hydraulic retention time long enough to enable anaerobic digestion in economically accepted reactor volumes are conditions that optimize the performance of anaerobic configurations. The evaluation additionally considers environmental aspects. The life cycle assessment of anaerobic industrial wastewater treatment reveals its positive environmental effect in terms of greenhouse gases emissions. Methane (a greenhouse gas) primarily contained in the biogas, despite being produced during anaerobic digestion, is utilized for energy production (heating, electricity) instead of being emitted to the atmosphere. Finally, anaerobic wastewater treatment is analyzed as part of the European Commission Innovation Deal that aims at converting conventional wastewater treatment plants to water resource recovery facilities able to combine sustainable wastewater treatment and water reuse.