Ocular pharmacokinetics and toxicity of nanoparticular acetazolamide: In vivo distribution and safety of PHBV-ACZ nanoparticle

ERDAL E., BAKICI C., Arslan A., BATUR B., YAMAN M. E., Alçığır M. E., ...More

International Journal of Pharmaceutics, vol.645, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 645
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2023.123336
  • Journal Name: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, EMBASE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database
  • Keywords: Acetazolamide, In vivo toxicity, Nanoparticles, Pharmacokinetic, Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-Hydroxyvalerate), Rabbit eye
  • Ataturk University Affiliated: Yes


Diabetic macular edema (DME) is defined as fluid accumulation in the macular region, between the retinal layers, due to many diseases, especially diabetes. DME is one of the major complications of diabetic retinopathy (DRP). Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAI) are a pharmaceutical agent used in different fields, especially glaucoma treatment. Acetazolamide (ACZ), which is a CAI, is an active substance that has been used off-label for many years in the treatment of macular edema due to diabetes and many other diseases. The low solubility and bioavailability of ACZ limit its use in the treatment of DME. In this study, a nanoparticulate formulation was developed that would increase the solubility and bioavailability of ACZ and allow it to be administered intravitreally. ACZ was loaded on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-Hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) nanoparticles and the loading efficiency was 71.58 ± 1.22%. Toxicity of nanoparticles after intravitreal application was evaluated with anterior segment and posterior segment examination findings, intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements and electrophysiological tests. At the end of the 3-month follow-up, electroretinography (ERG) measurements demonstrated that ACZ loaded PHBV (PHBV-ACZ) nanoparticles did not cause loss of function in retinal cells. On histological examination, rare degenerative changes were observed in several cell groups. In addition, pharmacokinetic studies were performed to determine the tissue distribution of ACZ at various periods. ACZ was identified in vitreous humor and retina at the highest concentration. Based on our results, the prepared nanoparticle formulation can release long-term CAI for DRP therapy and accordingly can reduce the need for monthly intravitreal injections.