Deep-red ground pepper, a variety of red ground pepper, is a special spices belonging to Sanliurfa and consumed both in Sanliurfa and other provinces of Turkey. The aim of this study was to determine the aflatoxin B-1 (AFB(1)) levels of deep-red ground pepper. For this purpose, 75 samples of deep-red ground pepper (isot) marketed in Sanliurfa (Turkey) were purchased from bazaars and herbal shops. The occurrence and concentration range of AFB(1) in the samples were investigated by microtitre plate Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method using immunoaffinity columns. Seventy-two of the 75 ground deep-red pepper samples (96%) contained AFB(1) in the range of 0.11-24.7 mu g/kg. Eleven (14.7%) samples were above the regulatory limits used in the European Union and in Turkey. More precaution should be taken on hygiene controls in order to prevent microbiological and chemical hazards. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.